Autonomous vehicle laws

Does the driving automation law/provision...
State What type of driving automation on public roads does the law/provision permit? Require an operator to be licensed? Require an operator to be in the vehicle? Require liability insurance?
Arizona deployment yes depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 1 yes
Arkansas testingFootnote 2 not addressed depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 3 yes
California deployment not addressed no yes; $5,000,000
Colorado deployment no not addressed no
Connecticut testing yes yes yes; $5,000,000
District of Columbia deployment yes yes no
Florida deployment yes no no
Georgia deployment depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 4 depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 5 yesFootnote 6
Hawaii testing not addressed not addressed not addressed
Illinois testing yes yes yes
Iowa deployment(effective 07/01/19) yes(effective 07/01/19) depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 7(effective 07/02/19) yes(effective 07/01/19)
Maine testing not addressed not addressed yes
Massachusetts testing no yes no
Michigan depends on vehicleFootnote 8 yes no yes
Nebraska deployment depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 9 depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 10 yes
Nevada deployment depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 11 depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 12 yesFootnote 13
New York testing yes yes yes; $5,000,000
North Carolina deployment depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 14 no yes
North Dakota deployment(effective 08/01/19) depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 15 (effective 08/01/19) depends on level of vehicle automationFootnote 16 (effective 08/01/19) yes(effective 08/01/19)
Ohio testing yes no yes
Pennsylvania depends on vehicleFootnote 17 depends on vehicleFootnote 18 depends on vehicleFootnote 19 no
Tennessee deployment no no yes; $5,000,000
Texas deployment no no yes
Utah deployment(effective 05/29/19) yes(effective 05/29/19) no(effective 05/29/19) yes(effective 05/29/19)
Virginia testing not addressed not addressed no
Washington testing depends on whether operator present in vehicle no yes