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IIHS issues recommendations on used vehicles for teens after research finds many aren't driving the safest ones

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July 16, 2014

IIHS issues recommendations on used vehicles for teens after research finds many aren't driving the safest ones

ARLINGTON, Va. — Many teenagers are driving vehicles that don't offer good crash protection and lack important safety technology, new research by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety shows. To help guide parents toward safer choices, IIHS has compiled its first-ever list of recommended used vehicles for teens.

IIHS is known for its ratings of new vehicles, but for many families, a 2014 Top Safety Pick or Top Safety Pick+2014 Top Safety Pick or Top Safety Pick+ isn't in the budget. In a national phone survey conducted for IIHS of parents of teen drivers, 83 percent of those who bought a vehicle for their teenagers said they bought it used.

With that reality in mind, the Institute has compiled a list of affordable used vehicles that meet important safety criteria for teen drivers (see below). There are two tiers of recommended vehicles with options at various price points, ranging from less than $5,000 to nearly $20,000, so parents can buy the most safety for their money, whatever their budget.

"A teenager's first car is more than just a financial decision," says IIHS President Adrian Lund. "These lists of recommended used vehicles can help consumers factor in safety, in addition to affordability."

Among the 500 parents surveyed, 43 percent said the vehicle their child drives was purchased around the time he or she began driving. Minicars or small cars were the most commonly purchased type of vehicle, with 28 percent buying from this category. A little more than half of newly purchased vehicles were from the 2006 model year or earlier. That's a problem because older vehicles are much less likely to have safety features such as electronic stability control (ESC) and side airbags.

Teenagers who drove a vehicle that the family already owned were even more likely to drive an older vehicle: Two-thirds of those parents said the vehicle was from 2006 or earlier.

A separate IIHS study shows that teenagers killed in crashes are more likely than adults to have been behind the wheel of small vehicles and older vehicles. Among fatally injured drivers ages 15-17 in 2008-12, 29 percent were in minicars or small cars, while 20 percent of fatally injured drivers ages 35-50 were. Eighty-two percent of the young teen drivers were in vehicles that were at least 6 years old, compared with 77 percent of those in the adult group.

The recommendations on teen vehicle choice are guided by four main principles:

  • Young drivers should stay away from high horsepower. Vehicles with more powerful engines can tempt them to test the limits.
  • Bigger, heavier vehicles protect better in a crash. There are no minicars or small cars on the recommended list. Small SUVs are included because their weight is similar to that of a midsize car.
  • ESC is a must. This feature, which helps a driver maintain control of the vehicle on curves and slippery roads, reduces risk on a level comparable to safety belts.
  • Vehicles should have the best safety ratings possible. At a minimum, that means good ratings in the IIHS moderate overlap front test, acceptable ratings in the IIHS side crash test and four or five stars from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).

In the survey of parents, the mean purchase price for a teen's vehicle was about $9,800, while the median was just $5,300. There are many options on the recommended list for under $10,000, but just three that cost less than $5,300.

"Unfortunately, it's very difficult to get a safe vehicle for a teenager at the prices most people are paying," says Anne McCartt, IIHS senior vice president for research. "Our advice to parents would be to remember the risks teens take and consider paying a little more."

All the recommended used vehicles have standard ESC and provide good protection in moderate overlap front crashes. Those considered "best choices" for under $20,000 also have good ratings for side crash protection, good head restraints and seats for rear crash protection, and good roof strength to protect occupants in rollover crashes. Vehicles considered "good choices" for under $10,000 have good or acceptable side crash protection and head restraints rated better than poor. Prices on the best choices list start at $7,300, while the cheapest good choice is $4,000.

Vehicles rated by NHTSANHTSA were included in the recommended lists only if they earned four or five stars in the front and side tests under the agency's original testing regime or an overall rating of four or five stars under the newer, more stringent rating system that began with 2011 models. One vehicle, the Hyundai Santa Fe, was excluded from the list of best choices because its 2012 model had an overall rating of just three stars.

High-horsepower vehicles also were left off the list, but many of the recommended models have high-horsepower versions that should be avoided. The base engines of all the listed vehicles have adequate power for teens.

Parents who don't find a suitable vehicle from either list should seek out a midsize or larger car, an SUV, or a minivan with the most safety they can afford. Besides ESC, specific things to look for in a used vehicle are side airbags and low horsepower. In some cases, it may be possible to find an ESC-equipped vehicle for a model on which the technology was optional. Those models aren't included in the recommended lists because equipped vehicles can be difficult to locate. Keep in mind that SUVs and pickups are particularly risky when not equipped with ESC because they are the most prone to rollover crashes. Information about the availability of ESC and side airbags can be found here.


BEST CHOICES:
Recommended used vehicles for teens starting under $20,000

Vehicles on this list earn good ratings in the IIHS moderate overlap front, side, roof strength and head restraint tests. If rated by NHTSA, they earn 4 or 5 stars overall or 4 or 5 stars in the front and side tests under the old rating scheme. All come with standard ESC.

Prices, rounded to the nearest $100, were taken from Kelley Blue Book on July 1, 2014, for the lowest trim level and earliest applicable model year based on the following criteria: vehicle in good condition, typical mileage and private party purchase in Arlington, Va.

LARGE CARS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Saab 9-5 sedan 2010 and later $17,500
Lincoln MKS 2009 and later $15,500
Buick Regal 2011 and later $13,500
Ford Taurus 2010 and later $13,500
Buick LaCrosse 2010 and later $12,900
Volvo S80 2007 and later $9,000
MIDSIZE CARS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Toyota Prius v 2012 and later $19,100
Mercedes-Benz C-Class sedan 2009 and later $16,000
Honda Accord sedan 2012 and later; coupe 2013-14 $14,400
Audi A4 2009 and later $14,300
Toyota Camry 2012 and later $14,300
Buick Verano 2012 and later $14,100
Subaru Outback 2010 and later $14,000
Lincoln MKZ 2010 and later; built after April 2010 $13,500
Kia Optima 2011 and later $13,300
Hyundai Sonata 2011 and later $12,100
Subaru Legacy 2010 and later $11,900
Dodge Avenger 2011 and later $11,600
Audi A3 2008 and later $11,300
Volkswagen CC 2009 and later $11,200
Chevrolet Malibu 2010 and later; built after November 2009 $10,900
Chrysler 200 sedan 2011 and later $10,700
Mercury Milan 2010-11; built after April 2010 $10,700
Ford Fusion 2010 and later; built after April 2010 $10,200
Volkswagen Passat 2009 and later $10,000
Volvo C30 2008 and later $9,800
Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen 2009 and later $9,400
Volkswagen Jetta 2009 and later $8,200
SMALL SUVs MODEL YEARS PRICE
Honda CR-V 2012 and later $18,100
Kia Sportage 2011 and later $13,800
Hyundai Tucson 2010 and later $13,100
Subaru Forester 2009 and later $12,800
Mitsubishi Outlander Sport 2011 and later $12,000
Volkswagen Tiguan 2009 and later $10,200
Honda Element 2007 and later $8,900
MIDSIZE SUVs MODEL YEARS PRICE
Volvo XC60 2010 and later $18,000
Saab 9-4X 2011-12 $17,800
Toyota Highlander 2008 and later $17,100
Toyota Venza 2009 and later $15,900
Ford Edge 2011 and later; built after February 2011 $15,500
Ford Flex 2010 and later $15,100
GMC Terrain 2010 and later $14,900
Kia Sorento 2011 and later $14,500
Infiniti EX 2008 and later $14,400
Chevrolet Equinox 2010 and later $13,700
Dodge Journey 2010 and later $11,200
Subaru Tribeca/B9 Tribeca 2006 and later $8,500
Volvo XC90 2005 and later $7,300
LARGE SUVs MODEL YEARS PRICE
Buick Enclave 2011 and later $19,900
GMC Acadia 2011 and later $17,800
Chevrolet Traverse 2011 and later $16,600
MINIVANS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Chrysler Town & Country 2012 and later $18,100
Honda Odyssey 2011 and later $17,100
Toyota Sienna 2011 and later $16,400
Dodge Grand Caravan 2012 and later $15,200
Volkswagen Routan 2012 $14,000

GOOD CHOICES:
Recommended used vehicles for teens starting under $10,000

Vehicles on this list earn good ratings in the IIHS moderate overlap front test and good or acceptable ratings in the side test. If rated by NHTSA, they earn 4 or 5 stars overall or 4 or 5 stars in the front and side tests under the old rating scheme. They also have standard ESC and a better-than-poor rating for head restraints and seats.

Prices, rounded to the nearest $100, were taken from Kelley Blue Book on July 1, 2014, for the lowest trim level and earliest applicable model year based on the following criteria: vehicle in good condition, typical mileage and private party purchase in Arlington, Va.

LARGE CARS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Acura RL 2005 and later $9,700
Mercury Sable 2009 $9,700
Kia Amanti 2009 $9,500
Ford Taurus 2009 $9,100
Audi A6 sedan 2005 and later $8,300
Hyundai Azera 2006 and later $5,700
MIDSIZE CARS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Subaru Legacy 2009 $9,900
BMW 3-series sedan 2006 and later $9,300
Mazda 6 2009 and later $8,900
Saturn Aura 2009 $8,800
Acura TL 2004 and later $7,900
Volvo S40 2007 and later $7,700
Audi A3 2006-07 $7,400
Mercedes-Benz C-Class sedan 2005-08 $6,900
Suzuki Kizashi 2010 and later $6,600
Volvo S60 2007-09 $6,500
Audi A4 2005-08; built after October 2004 $6,200
Volkswagen Passat 2006-08 $5,100
Saab 9-3 2005 and later $4,000
SMALL SUVs MODEL YEARS PRICE
Nissan Rogue 2008 and later $9,800
Ford Escape 2009 and later $8,700
Mazda Tribute 2009 and later $8,100
Mitsubishi Outlander 2007 and later $6,300
Suzuki Grand Vitara 2006 and later $5,600
MIDSIZE SUVs MODEL YEARS PRICE
Mazda CX-9 2007 and later $9,800
Ford Edge 2007-10 $9,600
Hyundai Veracruz 2007 and later $9,600
Hyundai Santa Fe 2007-10 $8,900
Honda Pilot 2006 and later $8,800
Saturn Vue 2008-09 $7,700
Ford Taurus X 2008-09 $7,500
Mazda CX-7 2007-11 $7,200
Suzuki XL7 2008-09 $6,200
MINIVANS MODEL YEARS PRICE
Volkswagen Routan 2009-11 $8,600
Dodge Grand Caravan 2008-11 $8,200
Chrysler Town & Country 2008-11 $8,100
Honda Odyssey 2005-10 $6,700
Hyundai Entourage 2007-08 $6,300
Kia Sedona 2006 and later $4,600

Note: Some listed models include a "built after" date. This applies when a manufacturer makes changes to improve safety in the middle of a model year. Information about when a specific vehicle was manufactured can be found on the certification label typically affixed to the driver door or near it.

BEST CHOICES: Recommended used vehicles for teens starting under $20,000

Vehicles on this list earn good ratings in the IIHS moderate overlap front, side, roof strength and head restraint tests. If rated by NHTSA, they earn 4 or 5 stars overall or 4 or 5 stars in the front and side tests under the old rating scheme. All come with standard ESC.

Prices, rounded to the nearest $100, were taken from Kelley Blue Book's KBB.com on July 1, 2014, for the lowest trim level and earliest applicable model year based on the following criteria: vehicle in good condition, typical mileage and private party purchase in Arlington, Va.

LARGE CARS

  • Saab 9-5 sedan (2010 and later) $17,500
  • Lincoln MKS (2009 and later) $15,500
  • Buick Regal (2011 and later) $13,500
  • Ford Taurus (2010 and later) $13,500
  • Buick LaCrosse (2010 and later) $12,900
  • Volvo S80 (2007 and later) $9,000

MIDSIZE CARS

  • Toyota Prius v (2012 and later) $19,100
  • Mercedes-Benz C-Class sedan (2009 and later) $16,000
  • Honda Accord (sedan 2012 and later; coupe 2013-14) $14,400
  • Audi A4 (2009 and later) $14,300
  • Toyota Camry (2012 and later) $14,300
  • Buick Verano (2012 and later) $14,100
  • Subaru Outback (2010 and later) $14,000
  • Lincoln MKZ (2010 and later; built after April 2010) $13,500
  • Kia Optima (2011 and later) $13,300
  • Hyundai Sonata (2011 and later) $12,100
  • Subaru Legacy (2010 and later) $11,900
  • Dodge Avenger (2011 and later) $11,600
  • Audi A3 (2008 and later) $11,300
  • Volkswagen CC (2009 and later) $11,200
  • Chevrolet Malibu (2010 and later; built after November 2009) $10,900
  • Chrysler 200 sedan (2011 and later) $10,700
  • Mercury Milan (2010-11; built after April 2010) $10,700
  • Ford Fusion (2010 and later; built after April 2010) $10,200
  • Volkswagen Passat (2009 and later) $10,000
  • Volvo C30 (2008 and later) $9,800
  • Volkswagen Jetta SportWagen (2009 and later) $9,400
  • Volkswagen Jetta (2009 and later) $8,200

SMALL SUVs

  • Honda CR-V (2012 and later) $18,100
  • Kia Sportage (2011 and later) $13,800
  • Hyundai Tucson (2010 and later) $13,100
  • Subaru Forester (2009 and later) $12,800
  • Mitsubishi Outlander Sport (2011 and later) $12,000
  • Volkswagen Tiguan (2009 and later) $10,200
  • Honda Element (2007 and later) $8,900

MIDSIZE SUVs

  • Volvo XC60 (2010 and later) $18,000
  • Saab 9-4X (2011-12) $17,800
  • Toyota Highlander (2008 and later) $17,100
  • Toyota Venza (2009 and later) $15,900
  • Ford Edge (2011 and later; built after February 2011) $15,500
  • Ford Flex (2010 and later) $15,100
  • GMC Terrain (2010 and later) $14,900
  • Kia Sorento (2011 and later) $14,500
  • Infiniti EX (2008 and later) $14,400
  • Chevrolet Equinox (2010 and later) $13,700
  • Dodge Journey (2010 and later) $11,200
  • Subaru Tribeca/B9 Tribeca (2006 and later) $8,500
  • Volvo XC90 (2005 and later) $7,300

LARGE SUVs

  • Buick Enclave (2011 and later) $19,900
  • GMC Acadia (2011 and later) $17,800
  • Chevrolet Traverse (2011 and later) $16,600

MINIVANS

  • Chrysler Town & Country (2012 and later) $18,100
  • Honda Odyssey (2011 and later) $17,100
  • Toyota Sienna (2011 and later) $16,400
  • Dodge Grand Caravan (2012 and later) $15,200
  • Volkswagen Routan (2012) $14,000

GOOD CHOICES: Recommended used vehicles for teens starting under $10,000

Vehicles on this list earn good ratings in the IIHS moderate overlap front test and good or acceptable ratings in the side test. If rated by NHTSA, they earn 4 or 5 stars overall or 4 or 5 stars in the front and side tests under the old rating scheme. They also have standard ESC and a better-than-poor rating for head restraints and seats.

Prices, rounded to the nearest $100, were taken from Kelley Blue Book's KBB.com on July 1, 2014, for the lowest trim level and earliest applicable model year based on the following criteria: vehicle in good condition, typical mileage and private party purchase in Arlington, Va.

LARGE CARS

  • Acura RL (2005 and later) $9,700
  • Mercury Sable (2009) $9,700
  • Kia Amanti (2009) $9,500
  • Ford Taurus (2009) $9,100
  • Audi A6 sedan (2005 and later) $8,300
  • Hyundai Azera (2006 and later) $5,700

MIDSIZE CARS

  • Subaru Legacy (2009) $9,900
  • BMW 3-series sedan (2006 and later) $9,300
  • Mazda 6 (2009 and later) $8,900
  • Saturn Aura (2009) $8,800
  • Acura TL (2004 and later) $7,900
  • Volvo S40 (2007 and later) $7,700
  • Audi A3 (2006-07) $7,400
  • Mercedes-Benz C-Class sedan (2005-08) $6,900
  • Suzuki Kizashi (2010 and later) $6,600
  • Volvo S60 (2007-09) $6,500
  • Audi A4 (2005-08; built after October 2004) $6,200
  • Volkswagen Passat (2006-08) $5,100
  • Saab 9-3 (2005 and later) $4,000

SMALL SUVs

  • Nissan Rogue (2008 and later) $9,800
  • Ford Escape (2009 and later) $8,700
  • Mazda Tribute (2009 and later) $8,100
  • Mitsubishi Outlander (2007 and later) $6,300
  • Suzuki Grand Vitara (2006 and later) $5,600

MIDSIZE SUVs

  • Mazda CX-9 (2007 and later) $9,800
  • Ford Edge (2007-10) $9,600
  • Hyundai Veracruz (2007 and later) $9,600
  • Hyundai Santa Fe (2007-10) $8,900
  • Honda Pilot (2006 and later) $8,800
  • Saturn Vue (2008-09) $7,700
  • Ford Taurus X (2008-09) $7,500
  • Mazda CX-7 (2007-11) $7,200
  • Suzuki XL7 (2008-09) $6,200

MINIVANS

  • Volkswagen Routan (2009-11) $8,600
  • Dodge Grand Caravan (2008-11) $8,200
  • Chrysler Town & Country (2008-11) $8,100
  • Honda Odyssey (2005-10) $6,700
  • Hyundai Entourage (2007-08) $6,300
  • Kia Sedona (2006 and later) $4,600

Note: Some listed models include a "built after" date. This applies when a manufacturer makes changes to improve safety in the middle of a model year. Information about when a specific vehicle was manufactured can be found on the certification label typically affixed to the driver door or near it.